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Case Control Study Discussion

Prompt: A researcher was doing research to determine whether exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF)/ radiations was associated with breast cancer in
women. By reviewing the county disease database collected within a single year in a U.S. metropolitan city the researcher discovered 16 women with breast
cancer. A total of 544 other women were randomly selected from the county disease database. Women were given surveys with specific questions regarding
exposure to EMF. Among women with breast cancer 5 reported no exposure to EMF; a total of 436 control women were never exposed to EMF.
1. Construct the required 2 x 2 table with numeric values indicating cases and controls.
2. Calculate the measure of association
3. Discuss and interpret the results obtained
4. If you (as a researcher) were to investigate a rare cancer in Chicago, where might you look for data?
5. What would be necessary, legally, and ethically, to be able to utilize this data set(s) obtained, as a researcher?

 

Sample Solution

nderstanding the sustainability of competitive advantage is central to strategy and management literature (Barney, 1991; Porter, 1985; Schendel, 1994) and comprehending sources of sustained high performance for firms is one of the most researched aspect in the domain of strategic management (Wenerfelt, 1984; Barney, 1991; Grant, 1991). Research scholars have claimed that competitive advantages are exceedingly difficult, if not impossible, to sustain in dynamic markets (Brown and Eisenhardt, 1998; D’Aveni, 1994; Lei, Hitt, and Bettis, 1996; Teece et al, 1997). Organization and strategy scholars emphasize several types of competitive moves that firms use to defend or strengthen their position relative to competitors (Chen and Hambrick, 1995; Ferrier, Smith, and Grimm, 1999; Katila and Chen, 2008). The fundamental premise is that engaging rivals through competitive moves generates a series of temporary advantages that lead to superior performance. There can be dual inferences by this; normative insights claim that making more moves, more complex moves, and more aggressive and faster moves (i.e., sooner) leads to higher performance (Young,Smith, and Grimm, 1996; Grimm, Lee, and Smith, 2006; Ozcan and Eisenhardt, 2009). Whereas other insight suggest that firms are more likely to enact moves if they have knowledge that their competitors are unlikely or unable to respond with impairing countermoves (Gimeno, 1999). In both the cases it is what is of significance is highlight the mechanism by which the capacity to compete is generated and regularly upgraded.