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Question 1: Supremacy of EU Law
‘Constitutional pluralism is no longer the theory that best describes the reality of incompatible claims of final
authority by the CJEU and British national constitutional courts and the mitigation of such claims through
judicial dialogue. The new reality is that direct judicial conflicts rather than judicial dialogue are increasing.
These conflicts have heralded the death of constitutional pluralism.’
Critically discuss this statement using CJEU case law, case law from British courts and academic literature.
• including a standard bibliography (OSCOLA compliant).



Sample Solution


The essential laws of the European Union (EU) are contained in the settlements concurred between part states.

These settlements set out how the EU is organized and administered. They likewise give powers to EU organizations to make and change optional laws.

The EU has 3 administrative (or law making) establishments:

The European Commission proposes new laws

These recommendations should be passed by both the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union

Questions about the understanding of these laws might be alluded to the Court of Justice of the European Union.

The EU utilizes 3 standards to choose in which regions it can make laws:

Conferral – the EU’s power is given on it by the Treaties. It can’t act past this power

Proportionality – the EU ought not go past what is important to accomplish the points of the Treaties

Subsidiarity – assuming public states can act, then, at that point, the EU should possibly act in case a superior result would result from an EU law

The power of EU law

EU law is better than public law. This implies that Ireland (alongside other part states) can’t pass public laws that go against EU laws. It likewise implies that an EU law can over-rule an Irish law, regardless of whether that Irish law was authorized under the steady gaze of the EU law became effective.

Direct impact

Just as being better than public law, some EU law has direct impact on its residents. This implies that you can depend on EU law in court even in circumstances where there is no public law set up. Direct impact just applies to EU laws that are restricting (see ‘Kinds of EU laws’ underneath), clear, exact and unlimited.

How EU laws are made

The EU utilizes various methods which rely upon the sort of law that is being instituted.

The conventional administrative system

This is the system utilized except if the arrangements express that another strategy ought to be utilized (see ‘Uncommon authoritative technique’ underneath)

EU laws start at the European Commission (this is known as the right of drive). The European Commission proposes laws, both fitting its very own preference or in light of discussions with other EU organizations, part states or public conferences.

First perusing

The proposed law is shipped off the European Parliament for its first perusing, and is given to the significant board of trustees to inspect. Corrections might be made to the proposed law. The European Parliament votes to all things considered:

Support the proposition

Support the proposition with changes

Reject the proposition

This is known as the parliament’s first understanding position.

Simultaneously, the proposition is likewise shipped off the Council of the European Union for its first perusing. The Council takes its position (the committee’s situation) after the parliament’s position is known. At this stage, the Council can:

Endorse the proposition by a certified greater part. This might include the Council tolerating any changes endorsed by the European Parliament.

Take a first perusing position of its own. This might be on the grounds that it contradicts a few pieces of the proposition, or the Parliament’s alterations. In this example, the proposition is sent back to Parliament with reasons and clarifications.

Reject the proposition by a certified greater part.

Qualified larger part casting a ballot (QMV)

To have a choice passed by the Council:

Basically 55% of part states should concur and

The part states in arrangement should address basically 65% of the EU populace

To hinder the proposition no less than 4 part states addressing essentially 35% of the number of inhabitants in the EU should cast a ballot against it.

Second perusing

On the off chance that the proposition has been sent back to Parliament briefly perusing, Parliament might support or reject it, or may propose revisions and send it back to the Council briefly perusing.

In the event that Council doesn’t acknowledge these changes, a Conciliation Committee is framed from an equivalent number of MEPs and Council agents. This Committee attempts to settle on a text. In case it succeeds, the proposition is sent back to the Parliament and Councils for third readings.

At this stage, the text of the proposition can’t be altered. It should be passed by both the Parliament and the Council to pass into law.

The extraordinary administrative systems

In specific cases, the deals consider an unexpected system in comparison to the common authoritative strategy.

In certain circumstances, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union must both pass a proposition without the ability to make alterations.

Assent method

In this method, the Parliament and Council should pass the proposition under the steady gaze of it can become law, and neither one of the establishments has the ability to revise the proposition. This methodology is utilized where:

The EU needs the endorsement of the European Parliament however isn’t proposing enactment (for instance, it wishes to authorize a part state for disrupting EU guidelines) or

Where enactment on fighting segregation is proposed

Meeting methodology

This is utilized in cases where the Treaties permit the Council to pass a law without the law passing the European Parliament. The Parliament should offer its guidance on the matter, however the Council might decide to pass the law regardless of whether the Parliament prompts against it.

Release system

This is utilized to evaluate the execution of the endorsed financial plan by the Commission. While the Council can submit a suggestion, a definitive capacity to support the execution (the release) is made by the Parliament.

Sorts of EU Law

Settlements are the principal laws of the EU. All settlements should be confirmed (passed and concurred) by part states.

Deals set out the standards for how the organizations of the EU work. The EU was established on various settlements, and its extension and improvement has been supported by the understanding of arrangements between the part states.

The European Charter of Fundamental Rights has similar lawful worth as the deals.

Guidelines are laws that apply to all part states (they have direct impact). They become part of public law and can be upheld through the public courts of every part state from the opportunity they come into power.

Orders are laws that put out objectives for part states to execute. Part states can bring laws that translate mandates into public law. Mandates typically have cutoff times for nations to take on them into public law.

Choices are simply applicable to indicated bodies. For instance, the EU Commission may give a choice that Ireland is acting in break of EU law. The choice directly affects the nation, organization or association that the choice is given against.

Suggestions and Opinions are not restricting, and EU part states can follow the exhortation of these proposals assuming they wish to or they can decide not to transform anything.

EU laws and Ireland

The Constitution of Ireland perceives that EU law is better than all public law.

The EU is the main body that can pass laws with respect to:

Customs association

Rivalry rules in the single market

Financial approach in the Eurozone

Worldwide economic alliance

Marine plants and creatures

Participation of the EU has profoundly affected Irish law. A few instances of where EU guidelines and orders have affected freedoms of Irish residents are beneath