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How Kuwait dealt with COVID-19

Some points to think of and please add more from research:
How Kuwait helped both Kuwaitis and non Kuwaitis
What it did different than other countries
Free healthcare/ COVID test for everyone and free vaccines
Write your complete introduction in paragraph form; underline your specific purpose statement
Outline the main points, sub-points and all subordinate points using full sentences
Write and label your transitions between main points
A minimum of three different sources; at least one source must be something other than a website (book,
magazine, journal article, interview, etc.)

Sample Solution

It is relatively easy to determine the difference between leadership and management, however it is also complex because many people can be both a leader and a manager. Essentially, a leader is a person who motivates the rest of the team and leads them to achieve goals, whilst a manager is a person who maintains the status quo and is in charge of resources, controlling systems and standards (DiMattia, 2013). The two roles are similar because a good leader must have effective management skills in order to be a good leader, and likewise, a good manager should have effective leadership skills (World Health Organization, 2013). Although there are many similarities in the two roles and skills that each role requires, there are differences in the ways that such skills are applied and differences in the outlook that each role has. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the differences between the skills required for management and leadership. This paper will discuss what skills are required for both a management and a leadership role using relevant concepts and theories, and furthermore, this paper will discuss how behaviours should be adjusted when progressing from the management to the leadership stage of the current program.


In order to be an effective organisation, the organisation needs to have strong leaders and strong managers; both of these roles require similar basic skills however each have very different skills and visions that distinguish the roles from one another. Not all managers are leaders and not all leaders can manage and thus the positions are different and unique and make valuable contributions to the workplace (Lunenburg, 2011). According to the World Health Organization (2013), “the aim of good management is to provide services to the community in an appropriate, efficient, equitable and sustainable manner” (p. 264). A manager is required within an organisation to develop and maintain a workplace that can function smoothly; such leaders help to advocate for the status quo and for stability within the organisation (Lunenburg, 2011). Kotter (2011) stated that the management process involves budgeting and planning as well as staffing, organising, problem solving and controlling. The overall goal of the manager is to stabilise the organisation by reducing the amount of uncertainty. The manager takes on the role of implementing the vision that the leader has developed and coordinating the staff and operations of the day-to-day business (Lunenburg, 2011).

The main skills that a manager requires relate to tasks and work and encompass process revolving around money, time, equipment and humans (Zhu, 2014). Managers must have strong planning and organisational skills because essentially they need to be well organised and must be able to organise others to ensure stability and ensure processes run smoothly in the organisation. It is vital that managers have strong communication skills so that they can communicate objectives and tasks to employees to ensure things run smoothly (Barrett, 2006). Managers are in charge of money so they must have skills in budgeting (Lunenburg, 2011). Furthermore, managers must be able to control situations well because they are frequently faced with needing to control particular standards in order to meet the objectives of the organisation (Jacques, Garger, & Thomas, 2007). Managers must be skilled in utilising resources and coordinating a variety of different tasks and people; managers will have many people under them and must be able to manage each individual and ensure they are working effectively (Lunenburg, 2011). Time management is an important skill for managers to possess to ensure they can complete tasks in an appropriate time frame. Furthermore, managers must have skills in problem solving and decision making because the job can be stressful and managers must be able to make the correct decisions when required (Lunenburg, 2011).


Whilst in many cases the position of a leader and a manager often overlap, in contrast to a manager, a leader is an advocate for new approaches and change within the organisation (Lunenburg, 2011). As previously mentioned, managers advocate for the status quo and for stability, however the role of the leader is to challenge this status quo. Leaders also need to be able to use their skills to inspire their team members and leaders are more concerned about the individual people rather than the systems (Lunenburg, 2011). Kotter (2011) stated that in contrast to the aforementioned management process, the leadership process involves creating a vision, communicating with the members of the organisation in order to align them with the vision and then working to motivate the team members and empowering them through the process of basic need fulfilment; this overall process creates change. The leader provides the overall direction and goal and the manager them implements this goal and organises the staff and process to achieve the goal for the organisation (Lunenburg, 2011). The current trend in today’s society is leaning towards generating more leaders as opposed to more managers because leaders are able to conquer volatile surroundings because they challenge them, whereas managers will crumble in such an environment (Lunenburg, 2011).


The main skills that a leader requires relate to leading and mentoring to show an example to others. Having a strong vision and being able to motivate others towards that vision is crucial for a leader to have (Mumford, Campion, & Morgeson, 2007). Additionally, the leader must have strong persuasion skills so that he or she can persuade others to move along the same path to achieve the goals of the organisation. Having a strong ability to work well in teams is a crucial skill for a leader because the leader has to constantly work with other people in a group and motivate these team members and keep them committed (Mumford, Campion, & Morgeson, 2007). A leader should have the ability to build solid relationships with others, because the leader needs to understand people and have relationships with their team members because as previously stated, the leader focuses on people and works through basic need fulfilment and empowering others. A crucial skill that the leader must also possess includes the ability to listen to others so that problems can be easily sorted and resolved, and also the ability to counsel others so that team members can be empowered (Solansky, 2010). Furthermore, leaders must be able to coach, teach and mentor their team members in order to get the best performance out of each employee to achieve the goals of the organisation (Mumford, Campion, & Morgeson, 2007).


Throughout the semesters within the current program, there has been a transition from learner, to manager, to leader and this requires an alteration in behaviour in response to the role change. In regards to the change from manager to leader, there are several changes that need to be made. A manager maintains the status quo of the group, whereas the leader works to motivate and develop goals for the group and thus behaviour must reflect this new initiative (Harper, n.d.). As a manager, it was important to place a strong focus on the structure and systems within the group, however as a leader, it is now important to focus on the actual people within the group. Being a manager meant focusing on the immediate goals whereas being a leader means thinking more long-term and thus when developing the industry project, it will be important to plan ahead (Harper, n.d.). One of the most important changes to make will be that as a manager, the role was to follow as a soldier, however as a leader, it is important to be an individual person leading and motivating others to achieve the goals that have been developed (Kotter, 2011). Furthermore, the leader role requires the individual to be an original person who innovates, rather than a copy who simply administers (Harper, n.d.). Thus, the overall changes that need to be made this semester through the role transition mainly relate to the outlook and focus on the group and the goals of the project.


In conclusion, the two roles are similar because a good leader must have effective management skills in order to be a good leader, and likewise, a good manager should have effective leadership skills, however there are also many differences in the two roles. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the similarities and differences between the skills required for management and leadership. A good leader aims to provide direction and motivation so that the team can achieve their goals and this requires effective coaching, teaching, mentoring and listening skills, whereas a manager aims to maintain the status quo and requires effective budgeting, planning, time management and problem solving skills. The overall changes that need to be made this semester through the role transition from manager to leader mainly relate to the outlook and focus on the group and the goals of the project. Whilst the two roles require an overlap of some of the skills of one another, each role applies the skill in a different way and has their own unique skill set required to differentiate between the leadership role and the management role.





Barrett, D. (2006). Strong communication skills a must for today’s leaders. Handbook Of Business Strategy, 7(1), 385-390. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10775730610619124


DiMattia, E. (2013). Leadership vs. Management – Focus on Leadership and Management. Library Journal. Retrieved from http://lj.libraryjournal.com/2013/01/opinion/focus-on-leadership-and-



Harper, A. What is the Difference Between Management and Leadership?. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-is-the-difference-between-management-and-leadership/


Jacques, P., Garger, J., & Thomas, M. (2007). Assessing leader behaviors in project managers. Management Research News, 31(1), 4-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01409170810845912


Kotter, J. (2011). A force for change. New York: Free Press.


Leadership and Management. (2013). World Health Organization. Retrieved 28 October 2016, from http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/imai/om_10_leadership_management.pdf


Lunenburg, F. (2011). Leadership versus Management: A Key Distinction—At Least in Theory. International Journal Of Management, Business, And Administration, 14(1), 1-4.


Mumford, T., Campion, M., & Morgeson, F. (2007). The leadership skills strataplex: Leadership skill requirements across organizational levels. The Leadership Quarterly, 18(2), 154-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.01.005


Solansky, S. (2010). The evaluation of two key leadership development program components: Leadership skills assessment and leadership mentoring. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(4), 675-681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.06.009


Zhu, Y. (2014). The Mediating Effects of Managerial Skills on the Relationship Between Managerial Values, Ethical Leadership, and Organizational Reputation. Journal Of Asia-Pacific Business, 15(4), 335-359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10599231.2014.965965