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Investigation for a potential fraud case

Computer Forensics and Investigations 6th Edition
Case 9-1 page 445
As part of the duties of a digital forensics’ examiner, creating an investigation plan is a
standard practice. Write a paper that describes how you would organize an investigation for
a potential fraud case. In addition, list methods you plan to use to validate the data collected
from drives and files, such as Word and Excel, with hashes. Specify the hash algorithm you
plan to use, such as MD5 or SHA-1.

Sample Solution

From the behavior of teachers and the principal, the organization can be categorized into six different profiles in reference to Haplin and Croft (1966). These profiles can be treated as distinct organizational climates (Elena  & Anit, 2010). The relevance of this section in this paper is because these profiles directly affect the way the teachers and the principal perceive the organizational climate. The perception of players in one of the profiles is out rightly different from their perception in the other environment   (Elena  & Anit, 2010). The profiles are thus as follows; open climate, controlled, familiar, autonomous, closed and paternal.

Open climate

This is used to describe the situation when freedom and authenticity in the interaction is common place between the students, the teachers, principal and the parents (Elena  & Anit, 2010). It mirrors a receptive, cooperative and supportive attitude that all these players have for each other in the form of commitment to work and ideas. According to research, a principal in this kind of climate is genuine in his concern for the teachers encouraging and motivating them to achieve even better rewards and results (Ali & Hale, 2009). The principal offers the members of the staff a privilege to do their duties and responsibilities in the best way they know how without any form of direction and dictatorship (Jainabee & Jamelaa, 2011).

The principal provide the lowest level hindrance to the instructional duties of the teacher, whether through administrative work or through the use excessive paperwork as is common place in many schools (Abu-Saad, &Vernon, 1995). In addition to this, the school that enjoys the open climate treats the teachers as respectful, tolerant and helpful processionals following a low disengagement principle (Elena  & Anit, 2010). The teachers have the interest of the learner at heart and therefore care and are willing to stretch a helping hand at any point and time of need. There is a high rate of teacher commitment to the success of the students since this is their most important delight and reward (Ali & Hale, 2009).

The teachers relate so closely to each other and view each other as close friends within and without the institution. One teacher’s problem is thus treated as that of the whole institution and the way to which the principal and the staff responds to it is dependent upon this fact (Abu-Saad, &Vernon, 1995). In this kind of climate, both the principal and the teachers are approachable both by the students and parents for any consultation (Myers, 2008). It is very clear that from this literature, one would deduce that an open climate has the stakeholders who share one common interest and who are collectively and intimately working together to achieve this interest – the success of the student. The students are the ones who gain most in this environment since they are often treated with love and understanding (Abu-Saad, &Vernon, 1995). It also evident that every member of this climate is has a positive perception and attitude towards their role in the ecology.

Autonomous Climate

This climate is an embodiment of freedom of operation within the institution. The teachers are free to operate in any way provided their operations are oriented towards the achievement of the schools goal. The principal uses the strategy of arousing diligence and enthusiasm among the staff members (Ramdass & Lewis, 2012). This arousal of an enthusiastic attitude results in the devotion of both the students and the teachers to the school’s goal. Its main merit is that this climate shuns all the external influences since the teachers and students are so intimate with the goals that none can convince them otherwise (Cross  & Ji, 2012). The teachers own a burning desire to impart knowledge to the students while the students own an unfathomable motivation to learn (Abu-Saad, &Vernon, 1995). There is thus an intimate relationship characterized with sincerity, openness and understanding. It is this mutuality that breeds the autonomous climate within an institution.

Controlled Climate

The distinguishing attribute of this type of climate is the hard work and diligence of the stakeholders (Loukas & Murphy, 2011). Although the principal fails to nurture commitment, he overemphasizes hard work that little or no time for social life is left for the members of staff. Nonetheless, the teachers show a high commitment to duty and concentrate even much in the institutional paperwork (Ramdass & Lewis, 2012).

The staff members lack the privilege to know each other personally because their main duty in the school and the success of the students has to be achieved only through hard work (Loukas & Murphy, 2011). The students by extension also work extremely hard in class but lack the privilege to participate in the extra curricula activities. The principal often uses direct approach to leadership and isolates him from the students, the teachers and the parents in the bid to prevent them from familiarizing with him (Hulpia & Devos, 2010). The parents of the students are discouraged from coming to school to visit the children since that time could be used to do something more productive activities (Ali & Hale, 2009).

Familiar Climate

This is the type climate where the principal concentrates on the building and maintaining a work environment that is friendly to all members of the staff. However, this concentration is often done at the expense of carrying out and achieving the institutional goals (Cross  & Ji, 2012). A number of teachers, thus, show less commitment to their fundamental duties and responsibilities. The few who commit rebel some of the principal means of leadership and management of the school. In a nutshell, these teachers contradict some views advanced by the principal. The teachers who are not committed then form their cocoon united by lack of commitment and those opposed to the principal also form their grouping united by the common denominator which is the principal’s views (Cross  & Ji, 2012). In such an environment students and the principal are the ones who suffer most. The students fail to gain the knowledge that they ought to receive from their teachers and at the same time become demoralized by the behaviors that their teachers depict while the principal struggles throughout to break the bridge between the cocoons and at the same time see to it that the teachers attend their duties as per schedule without imposing pressure or through harassment (Loukas & Murphy, 2011). The principal in this environment perceives the organizational climate as highly demanding, unbearable, hate making, cumbersome and unfriendly. At the time when the teachers enjoy the climate as relaxed, the principal is under extreme pressure to deliver quality academic results which can only be achieved by a dedicated team (Loukas & Murphy, 2011).

Paternal Climate

In this climate, the principal is highly enthusiastic about his job but this does not translate much to the teachers. This is because to these teachers, hard work is a strange term (Ramdass & Lewis, 2012).though his expectation to his members of staff is high and impractical, his commands a good rapport and relationship with the teachers (Ali & Hale, 2009). He is as aforementioned energetic and very considerate although his/her leadership mode is the benevolent autocracy (Ramdass & Lewis, 2012). Resulting from this most students, teachers, parents and other stakeholders feel more comfortable keeping a social distance with the principal other even though he is approachable. Research shows that in this type of climate, students get it very difficult to express their grievances and the parents pay a visit to the institution when the reason unavoidable important (Jainabee & Jamelaa, 2011).

Closed Climate

The closed climate is often referred to as the “antithesis of the open climate” (Corene, 2010). The most profound characteristic of this climate as presented by Haplin (1966) is the lack of commitment and/or disengagement. Both the principal and his teachers are not committed to the achievement of institutional goals. There is zero concentration and no commitment to accomplishing high performance. Instead, the principal emphasizes on the delivery of routine, unnecessary and trivial paperwork to which teachers do not even respond to (Grayson & Alvarez, 2008).  The principal is generally rigid and strict in behavior though this helps very little to motivating teachers to performance. He/she is unresponsive, inconsiderate and unsupportive to his staff, students and parents resulting in the feeling of frustration and dissatisfaction from all these parties. The atmosphere thus becomes tense and lacking mutual respect for one another (Shwu-yong  & Hersh, 2009). The teachers’ lack of comfort in such an environment therefore results in a negative perception of the principal in the organizational climate.

Organizational Culture

This aspect of organizational management has also gained much popularity in understanding the perception of teachers, principal, and students on the organizational climate (Dimitri & Mieke, 2012).  The work place culture determines how people relate, what people say and do and how differences are handled at the place of work. It is this phenomenon that makes it a vital establisher of perceptions among the teacher and the principal. Although there many different connotations of organizational culture in the literature, most of them agree to a simpler and distinguishing definition that separates from organizational climate with which it is often confused. It is a body of solutions for both the internal and external problems that has consistently worked for an organization and is thus conveyed to the new members of the system as a right means of perceiving, feeling and thinking about the same dilemmas and problems (Jainabee & Jamelaa, 2011).

Contrary to organizational climate, culture develops overtime and is not easily changed whether there is a change of management unless there is a complete overhaul of the whole system (Jainabee & Jamelaa, 2011). This is why fundamental perceptions of the teacher and the principal on the organizational climate remain intact overtime. It is developed over a long period of time and as the development proceeds, the culture acquire a relatively important in depth meaning that is very difficult to erase.

Ones developed, the culture get so embedded into the system that members of that system employ it as a reality, natural truth, human nature that cannot be changed with that society. In lieu of this culture is further defined as shared ideologies, philosophies, assumptions, values, attitudes, norms and expectations that unite a community tightly together. In the case of this study the community in reference is the organization, for instance a school, and these intertwined qualities reveal both the explicit and implicit agreement among administrators, teachers and other stakeholders on the best way of approaching problems and decisions (Ramdass & Lewis, 2012).

Another research pointed clearly out that at the core of any concept explanation of organizational culture is the learned pattern concept of semiconscious or unconscious thought reinforced and reflected by demeanor that powerfully but silently shapes the peoples’ experiences (Jainabee & Jamelaa, 2011). This thought pattern fosters order, gives stability, creates meaning and promotes certainty and predictability. It is what is referred to as organizational culture.

The organizational climate together with the organizational culture of an institution is fundamental in the determination of the perceptions of the players in that institution on the organization management and environment. It would thus be rewarding and sensible if, in such a study as this that focuses on perceptions of players in a school; they are given the consideration that they deserve.



Abu-Saad, I. &Vernon L. H. (1995). Organizational climate and teachers’ job satisfaction in a multi-cultural milieu: The case of the Bedouin Arab schools in Israel. International Journal of Educational Development, 15, 2, 141-153.

Adel, Z. & Mahdi M. (2010). A study of simple and multiple relations between organizational health and faculty trust in female high schools. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences,  2 (2), 1532-1536.

Ali, E. & Hale, E. (2009). Predicting organizational trust level of school managers and teachers at elementary schools.  Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1,1, 2180-2190.

Azzara, J.R. (2001). The heart of leadership. Educational administration, 58(4), 62-64.