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Life expectancy

Any explanations for the differences in life expectancy at birth in different nations? If there is such a gap between nations, does this prove that it is not just based upon biology? If not biology, then what? What does the Russia experience suggest?
Let me be a bit clearer in the question:
What does the data in the PowerPoint suggest though about the biological issue. Why are the rates so close in some places and so far away in other places? Why do they differ so much in the same locations over different time periods if it is mostly biology and estrogen and immune systems? Why are the rates so close in Iceland today? Or, the UAE even? But, very large gaps in Hungary, Romania, Argentina, Brazil, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and the Ukraine (where women life expectancy is over 10 years longer now? Is there different biology in the Ukraine or Latvia from the UK or Iceland? Different estrogen levels? Is it in our genes and biology? Partly? Mostly?

Here is a source of data on life expectancy rates in different nations: Life Expectancy by Country and in the World (2021) – Worldometer (worldometers.info)

Sample Solution

This visualization shows the dramatic increase in life expectation over the last many centuries as a line map. For the UK – the country for which we’ve the longest time-series – we see that before the 19th century there was no trend for life expectation life expectation changed between 30 and 40 times.
Over the last 200 times people in all countries in the world achieved emotional progress in health that lead to increases in life expectation. In the UK, life expectation doubled and is now advanced than 80 times. In Japan health started to ameliorate latterly, but the country caught up snappily with the UK and surpassed it in the late 1960s. In South Korea health started to ameliorate latterly still and the country achieved indeed faster progress than the UK and Japan; by now life expectation in South Korea has surpassed life expectation in the UK.
The map also shows how low life expectation was in some countries in the history A century ago life expectation in India and South Korea was as low as 23 times. A century latterly, life expectation in India has nearly tripled and in South Korea it has nearly quadrupled.
You can switch to the chart view to compare life expectation across countries. This view shows that there are still huge differences between countries people in numerous Sub-Saharan countries have a life expectation of lower than 60 times, while in Japan it exceeds 80.
Life Expectation, 2019
. No data
86 times
Note Shown is period life expectation at birth, the average number of times a infant would live if the pattern of mortality in the given time
. were to stay the same throughout its life.
Rising life expectation around the world
In the pre-modern, poor world life expectation was around 30 times in all regions of the world. The estimates by annalist James Riley shown then suggest that there was some variation, between different world regions, but in all world regions life expectation was well below 40 times.5
The literal estimates are associated with a considerable query – it’s worth reading the work by Riley to understand the limitations and strengths of the estimates.6 But of course these misgivings are much lower than the veritably large increase in life expectation since also.
Contagious conditions raged in all corridor of the world and as we show in our entry on child mortality nearly half of all children failed before they reached majority. And those that survived frequently failed soon after. Without public health measures and without effective drugs conditions were killing utmost people at a veritably youthful age.
This was the reality for humanity until veritably lately. Life expectation in each region of the world stayed fairly stable for utmost of history until humanity started to make progress against poor health just a many generations agone. Epidemiologists relate to this period in which life expectation began to increase mainly as the “ health transition”.
This map shows that the health transition began at different times in different world regions; Oceania began to see increases in life expectation around 1870, while Africa did n’t begin to see increases until around 1920.
Since also life expectation doubled in all world regions.
In Oceania life expectation increased from 35 times before the health transition to 79 times in 2019.
In Europe from 34 to 79 times.
In the Americas from 35 to 77 times.
In Asia from27.5 to73.6.
And in Africa from 26 times to 63 times.
Encyclopedically the life expectation increased from an normal of 29 to 73 times in 2019.
Life expectation, 1770 to 2019
30 times
40 times
50 times
60 times
70 times
Note Shown is period life expectation at birth, the average number of times a infant would live if the pattern of mortality in the given time
. were to stay the same throughout its life.
Life expectation increased in all countries of the world
There’s a lot of information in the following – rather unusual – map. On the x-axis you find the accretive share of the world population. And all the countries of the world are ordered along the x-axis thrusting by the life expectation of the population. On the y- axis you see the life expectation of each country.
For 1800 ( red line) you see that the countries on the leftism – India and also South Korea – have a life expectation around 25. On the veritably right you see that in 1800 no country had a life expectation above 40 (Belgium had the loftiest life expectation with just 40 times).
In 1950 the life expectation of all countries was advanced than in 1800 and the richer countries in Europe and North America had life contemplations over 60 times – over the course of modernization and industrialization the health of the population bettered dramatically. But half of the world’s population – look at India and China – made only little progress. Thus the world in 1950 was largely unstable in living norms – easily divided between advanced countries and developing countries.
This division is ending Look at the change between 1950 and 2012! Now it’s the former developing countries – the countries that were worst off in 1950 – that achieved the fastest progress. While some countries ( substantially in Africa) are lacking before. But numerous of the former developing countries have caught up and we achieved a dramatic reduction of global health inequality.
The world developed from inversely poor health in 1800 to great inequality in 1950 and back to further equivalency moment – but equivalency on a much advanced position.