Any explanations for the differences in life expectancy at birth in different nations? If there is such a gap between nations, does this prove that it is not just based upon biology? If not biology, then what? What does the Russia experience suggest?
Let me be a bit clearer in the question:
What does the data in the PowerPoint suggest though about the biological issue. Why are the rates so close in some places and so far away in other places? Why do they differ so much in the same locations over different time periods if it is mostly biology and estrogen and immune systems? Why are the rates so close in Iceland today? Or, the UAE even? But, very large gaps in Hungary, Romania, Argentina, Brazil, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia and the Ukraine (where women life expectancy is over 10 years longer now? Is there different biology in the Ukraine or Latvia from the UK or Iceland? Different estrogen levels? Is it in our genes and biology? Partly? Mostly?
Here is a source of data on life expectancy rates in different nations: Life Expectancy by Country and in the World (2021) – Worldometer (worldometers.info)