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NUR 21901 – Patho-pharmacology I

This course provides an introduction to the fundamental principles of pathophysiology and pharmacology. The course aims to provide students with a solid foundation in the interplay between pathophysiology and pharmacology and how this knowledge is applied to patient care.

Some of the main topics covered in this course include:

Cellular adaptation, injury, and death
Inflammation and healing
Genetic and developmental disorders
Immune and infectious disorders
Neoplastic disorders
Endocrine disorders
Cardiovascular disorders
Respiratory disorders
Renal and urinary disorders
Gastrointestinal disorders
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics
Medication administration and dosage calculation
Adverse drug reactions and interactions
The course is designed to help students understand how pathophysiology and pharmacology relate to one another, and how this knowledge can be used to provide safe and effective patient care. By the end of the course, students should have a strong foundation in the principles of patho-pharmacology and be able to apply this knowledge to patient care scenarios.

There are assignments offered under each of the identified topics. We will tackle all the assignments, as well as post discussions and replies to the posts of other students, in case of online course up take.

Sample Solution

Cellular adaptation, injury, and death are important concepts in the field of pathophysiology, which is the study of the functional and structural changes in cells, tissues, and organs that underlie diseases. These concepts are interrelated and are essential to understanding the mechanisms of disease and the body’s response to stress and injury.

Cellular adaptation refers to the changes that cells undergo in response to their environment. Cells have the ability to adapt to different conditions to maintain their normal function. The different types of cellular adaptation include hypertrophy, hyperplasia, atrophy, and metaplasia.

Hypertrophy refers to an increase in cell size, which may occur in response to increased workload or hormonal stimulation. Hyperplasia, on the other hand, refers to an increase in the number of cells, which may occur in response to growth factors or hormonal stimulation.

Atrophy is a decrease in cell size, which may occur in response to decreased workload or hormonal stimulation. Metaplasia is a change in cell type, which may occur in response to chronic irritation or inflammation. In some cases, metaplasia can lead to dysplasia, which is a precancerous change in cell morphology.

Cellular injury occurs when cells are exposed to stressors such as toxins, infection, or physical trauma. If the stress is severe or prolonged, it can lead to cell death. The different types of cellular injury include reversible injury, irreversible injury, and necrosis.

Reversible injury refers to cellular changes that can be reversed if the stressor is removed. These changes include cellular swelling and fatty changes. Irreversible injury refers to cellular changes that cannot be reversed, such as cell membrane damage and mitochondrial dysfunction. Necrosis is the death of cells due to irreversible injury, which can result in inflammation and tissue damage.

Cell death is a normal process that occurs in the body as part of development and tissue turnover. However, excessive cell death can lead to tissue damage and disease. The different types of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy.

Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death that is necessary for tissue homeostasis and development. Necrosis, as discussed earlier, is a form of cell death that occurs as a result of injury. Autophagy is a cellular process that removes damaged organelles and proteins to maintain cellular function.

In conclusion, cellular adaptation, injury, and death are important concepts in pathophysiology. The ability of cells to adapt to their environment is essential for maintaining normal function, while cellular injury and death are associated with disease and tissue damage. Understanding these concepts is important for understanding the mechanisms of disease and developing effective treatments.