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Select one of the three theories below (I chose Utilitarianism). Once you have done so, select one of the three
topics associated with that theory. Watch the associated video for that topic.

Sample Solution

During the course of the Mpeketoni attack, the active Kenyan media lively engaged its audience to give them real time information regarding the attack. From the breaking of the news all the Kenyan media reported through the term “unknown assailants,” referring to the victimizers (KTN (June 16, 2014). However, as the “assailing” continued, this issue of the victimizer would take the central stage in the media. Fraile (2011) actually points to this interest when he argues that the victimizer in any crisis is the prime concern of any media. NTV (June 27, 2014) reported that the attack was likely due to “political injustices” done to the local people at the same time they presented the hypothesis of the attack been a “political plot to eliminate some tribes from the region,” When K24 (June 16, 2014) reported that comprehensive report on attack it is clear that the focus was mainly on the attackers with the report concentrating on their mode operations and the damage caused. Actually, little audience is given to any of the survivors or other victims to give a vivid account of the ordeal. Even if done, the media only reported sections where the survivor mentioned the attacker. Victims were given a raw time in the reporting. According to Cottle (2009) the mediatization of the victim entails a vivid account of the survivor on the ordeal including their experiences and emotions in a manner that emotionally bonds with the audience. This initial mediatization of the victim would later shape the discourse around the crisis.

Drawing from the media’s interest on the perpetrators, the CS and later the president implicated “political networks” with the president categorically noting that “the attack was politically motivated” (Daily Nation, June 27, 2014) and was “an al-Shabaab attack.” The then CS of Interior, Mr. Joseph Ole Lenku, particular implicated the opposition Leader Mr. Raila Odinga in the statement “His history is a book Kenyans have seen and read and know. It is not me to say it because it is in the public domain of his political activities.” Actually even after the president’s speech in which he condoled with the grieved and promised action, the media singled out his reference to “political motivation” of the attack. These happened after the Al-shabaab had claimed responsibility. In fact, both political rhetoric and media analysis that followed forgot about the victims and focused on the analysis of the perpetrators. According to Andrew Franklin, an analyst sorted by KTN, “Alshabaab has never claimed responsibility in what they have not done,” and therefore their claim of responsibility had to be taken seriously (KTN, June 17, 2014).

The mediatization of the victimizers in the Mpeketoni case had far reaching negative effects on the country. Firstly, since it later emerged that the attack was perpetrated by al-Shabaab, the group found strength and gained perception as a dangerous yet well organized group. This was particularly due to the later media reference to the president’s statement that the attack was “well planned and orchestrated.” Secondly, the survivors felt greatly neglected even after the government offer to assist in the funeral arrangements. Still, the focus on the victimizer divided the country due to the reckless utterance of the political class. According to Fraile (2011) the mediatization of the victimizer often instigates negative perceptions among the audience. On the contrary, a mediatization of the victim often bread oneness and sympathy on the whole issue.  Kibet (2015) however, notes that in politically important crises, it is only the mediatization of the victim that can bring people into working together and bar the breeding of political tension out of the crisis. In essence, thus, the findings of this paper are supported by literature