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Variables in your study.

Describe the variables in your study. Indicate whether they are independent, dependent, moderating, or intervening. Describe the relationship between the variables. Tell how they will be measured. 4.Data Collection Methods – Tell what kind of data you need to collect and how, where, and when you will collect the data. If you plan​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​ to use a survey or questionnaire, include a copy of that instrument in an appendix to your report. 5.Also, include a copy of your cover letter for your survey. If you plan to interview, tell if it would be structured or unstructured and why. If it is a structured interview, include the questions you would ask in an appendix to the report. 6. Data Analysis Methods – Describe the techniques you will use to analyze the data. Indicate why you selected those methods and why they are appropriate. You must be specific and detailed in identifying and justifying the processes and statistical tests you will use in the analysis of your data. 7. References – Your report must contain a reference section that includes all sources in your paper. References must be in APA format. I have attached all document you have done and the draft you made a few weeks ago. if I’m not mistaking you are woking on one for this week and one for next week you can add those to this final project if needed. Please add 3 more page of info, you can combine what you have done already as well. If you have any question​‌‍‍‍‌‍‍‌‍‌‌‍‍‍‌‍‌‌‌‍​ let me know.

Sample Solution

A&F is positioned within “a dynamic and rapidly changing industry” (Akehurst and Alexander, 1995, p. 67) which creates an ambiguous environment due to the rate of change and innovation created by the external stakeholders (Male, 2003). With a large offer and low switching costs, consumers possess bargaining power (Porter, 1979) over apparel retailers and are consistently looking for the best quality and cheapest prices, unless they have loyalty to a particular brand (Perrier, 2013). Thus, due to the highly turbulent nature of the industry, firms having to constantly change and adapt to grow and survive (Male, 2003). The structural change of the industry and survival of retailers can be explained using Darwinian ‘natural selection’ theory. A&F has been disrupted by the new, ‘fittest’ species including Forever 21, who have managed to adapt, effectively respond and evolve in line with the changes in the marketplace (Findlay and Sparks, 2002).

During the Recession in 2008, “it was not uncommon for retailers to cut their prices in the interests of preserving volume and market share” (Raynor and Mumtaz, 2013). Consequently, all the retailers were forced to adapt to the changing market conditions by offering discounts, in order to sustain in the face of new entrants. A&F experienced a sharp decline during the recession that led to layoffs, and continuously decreasing sales due to their decision to hold onto their historic position against price promotions. Already “in its fiscal-fourth-quarter” of 2008, A&F reported a 68% drop in earnings (Rosenberg, 2012, p. 2), whilst closing dozens of underperforming stores. However, those firms that coped with the recession with price discounts, were finding it difficult to increase their prices back as customers realised that their T-shirts do not have to be expensive.

Functional Stupidity Theory

One could argue that A&F are not failing due to their labelled clothing or hiring good-looking people but rather due to their “management being out of touch” (Smith, 2016). A&F is an example of “cultural stagnation” (Bate, 1995) as for years, company’s key long term strategy, to advertise to cool and attractive young customers, worked, making A&F the leader in apparel industry. However, public perception of the brand has been eroded due to the company’s unethical incorrectness and offensive advertising. Jeffries and other board members demonstrated “macho mindset” (Pal, Medway, Warnaby, 2010) and “fostered ‘hubris” (de Vries and Engellau, 2004) by implementing discriminative pricing and hiring, focusing on customer exclusion and product exclusivity, leading to company’s short-term success and long term decline. A&F was resistant to change even after the several lawsuits, controversies and continuous drop in sales. Thus, the board members have failed to maintain “radical innovation” strategy that had previously differentiated the brand (Schumpeter, 1934) and implement “reactive changes” approach in response to uncertain industry environment (Nandeshwar and Jayasimha, 2010). The main reasons behind the company experiencing major losses is both due to the narcissism of the board members and their “structural inertia” (Hannan and Freeman, 1984), unwillingness to challenge existing status quo and fear to cannibalise ‘organisational identity’ (Rughase, 2006). Failure to maintain flexibility within the company has led to dramatic decrease in demand ultimately resulting in company having to introduce large discounts alongside with price share declining to as low as $8.89 in 2017 (Sutharson, 2017).